Different Electrical Components

When we take a look at the electrical circuit, we may find numerous amounts of electrical components that are used in most of the circuits. These electrical components are the essential building blocks of electrical and electronic devices. Personal computers, laptops, tablets, motherboards, hard disks, etc have these electrical components. Also, we must understand that the size of these components may vary depending on their usage. 

For example, a generator is an electrical component that is used every day and a switch is also an electrical component that is used on a daily basis. However, their size varies and their purpose is also different. Therefore, in this article, we shall learn about such electrical components and their applications.


A rectifier is defined as the electrical device which is used for the conversion of an oscillating alternating current into a direct current. The alternating current is a two-directional signal while the direct current which is obtained using a rectifier is a single-directional signal. Half-wave rectifier is the simplest form of the rectifier. In half-wave rectification, only one side of the alternating current is eliminated which means that the conversion is inefficient. That’s when a full-wave rectifier is used. Rectifiers are also used for the conversion of direct current back into alternating current. Another application of a rectifier is that it is used for changing the voltage and a transformer is used for doing this.


We all use batteries and it is present in our phones, laptops, remote control devices, etc. We know that a battery converts the chemical energy into electrical energy. This conversion takes place when there is an electrochemical discharge reaction taking place. A battery has one or more than one cell which consists of an anode, a cathode, and an electrolyte. The anode is the negative charge while the cathode is a positive charge. The batteries are classified as primary cells and secondary cells depending on whether they can be recharged or not. Usually, the primary cells are not rechargeable whereas the secondary cells are rechargeable.


A switch is an electrical component that acts as a bridge between one conductor and another. It is used for breaking the flow of electric current from one conductor to the next. Single pole single throw, single pole double throw, double pole single throw, and double pole double throw are the classifications of the switches. The switches work on the basis of the ON and OFF principles. When the switch is ON, there is a flow of current whereas when the switch is OFF, there is no flow of current.


A transistor is a three-terminal electronic device that is made from the semiconductor material. The three terminals of a transistor are emitter, base, and collector. The base is in the middle while the emitter and the collector are the two ends of the transistor. A transistor can be with a PNP transistor or an NPN transistor. In PNP transistors the n-type semiconductor is sandwiched between the two p-type semiconductors whereas, in an NPN transistor, the p-type semiconductor is sandwiched between the two n-type semiconductors. The emitter is the negative lead while the collector is the positive lead. The base is responsible for the activation of the transistor.

These were some of the electrical components that we come across in most of the electronics. To learn how a full-wave rectifier works and converts the two-directional signals, visit BYJU’S. Also, subscribe to our YouTube channel to understand how these electrical components work with the help of informative videos. 

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